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Chapter 4: Caring for Baby Chicks
Just like puppies, baby chicks are unbelievably adorable and loveable. And just like puppies, they're a handful! That said, we totally
recommend it for anyone looking for a "pet" flock. This chapter covers all the basics of baby chick care.
As mentioned in the last chapter, baby chicks can be purchased here at
My Pet Chicken, at a poultry hatchery or garden/farm supply store. (If you need help
deciding on the breed, give give our free Breed Selector Tool a try.)
Clearing Your Schedule
Baby chicks require constant care and monitoring, so make sure your schedule is pretty clear for the first 4 weeks! Don't plan on vacations
or even day trips unless you have a baby chick pro on standby. Make sure you or a member of your family are available to
check on them at least
five times a day.
Deciding Where They're Going to Live
You can keep young chicks almost anywhere: their small size makes them easy to handle! They grow quickly, though, and by the time they're
three or four weeks old they'll be taking up a lot of space and making a big mess, so preparing a living space for them is actually quite
important. (The good news is that you can transfer them to their outside coop at 4-5 weeks of age, so you won't have to deal with the mess
for too long... More on that below.)
Chicks are most susceptible to getting chilled during the first week or two after they hatch, so extra attention will need to be given during
this time in order to keep chicks warm, protected and fed. In nature the mamma hen takes care of all of that naturally with her babies running
swiftly to cuddle in her feathers when she calls, but when you care for chicks yourself you have to replace their mama. For the first week or
two it is very important to have your chicks in a brooder situated in a climate controlled setting like a spare bedroom or laundry room in
your home. While that may sound smelly and messy, you can use absorbent paper towels in your brooder to keep them from making a mess and to
make daily cleaning easier. If you choose to place a brooder in a place without climate control be sure to check your babies frequently through
the day and night to be sure they are not too warm nor too cool as the temperatures change. Remember, baby chicks need you to be their mama
and create the perfect environment!
Once your chicks are 7-14 days old, they will have started getting some feathers and can more easily adjust to changing temperature.
Although you still need to make sure they are kept warm enough, they are also growing fast and its time to move them to a place where you won't
mind their playful mess-making. Ideally you'll have a garage, workshop, basement or another predator-proof and draft-proof environment that's
not in your main living space. Why not the main living space? Baby chicks, just like grown chickens, love to "scratch" their bedding materials,
which creates a very fine dust that gets everywhere. The older they get, the more dust they make. Baby chicks also have a smell... It's not
decidedly bad, nor do we find it overwhelming, but you may not want it in your house once they are a couple of weeks old.
If you don't have a garage, workshop or basement in which to keep them, pick the next best option. Do you have a three season porch where
it won't get too cold? A spare bedroom whose surfaces you can cover? If none of the above, does your kitchen have an eat-in area not too
close to prep surfaces that you're willing to sacrifice for a few weeks? Choose the best possible option keeping in mind that wherever
you keep them, they must be safe from predators and drafts.
Creating a Suitable Living Environment
This is the one of the most important part of raising happy, healthy chicks.
The baby chick house (also known as the "brooder")
Baby chicks need to be protected from drafts but still have adequate ventilation. This can be in the form of a cardboard box with
holes for ventilation, a large plastic storage bin, an unused bathtub, or even a kiddie pool! All
of the above have been used with success.
Whatever housing solution you go with, make sure it provides 2 square feet per chick. It sounds like an awful lot, but as they
get older (and bigger) you'll realize why this is necessary.
A heat source
Baby chicks need to be kept pretty hot. Think sauna! The first week of their lives they require an air temperature of 95 degrees,
the second week 90 degrees, and so on - going down by around 5 degrees per week until they're ready to transition to "outside". We have a LOT to say about heating sources, since we have seen over and over again how 250-watt infrared heat bulbs can cause fires. We really can't recommend them. Despite the higher price tag, we strongly prefer any of these heaters over heat bulbs:
- Sweeter Heater
- Brinsea EcoGlow
- Cozy Coop Heater
(You can learn more about the pros and cons of each of these heating methods on each respective product page.)
If you use a heat source that does not emit light we suggest leaving a light on in the room with the chicks for the first week or two so they can find warmth in the middle of the night. Chicks look for something dark to get under and can't find the heater in a dark room at night.
If, after careful consideration, you still feel that a high-wattage infrared heat bulb is the way to go, we recommend (and only offer for sale) the red heat bulbs, for a few reasons: one, with a bright white light constantly glaring it can be hard for chicks to sleep--and their cheeping will make it hard for YOU to sleep, too! The red light is darker and provides them some respite. Two, red lights help prevent them from pecking one another.
After placing your chicks in your brooder, pay close attention to how they behave. If they're crowded together directly under or adjacent to the heat source, they're cold. Lower the heat source or add another. If, on the other hand, your chicks seem to be avoiding the heat source like the plague, they're too hot! Move the heat source farther away from them. Happy chicks will be contentedly exploring all around the brooder.
(Please do not listen to anyone who tells you a regular old 60 watt bulb will suffice to heat your chicks! That advice is deadly. Chicks really need a heat source designed to produce heat, not light.)
Baby chicks are big poopers, so make sure to line the floor of their housing unit with an absorbent material. The best, we think,
is to spread pine or aspen shavings about 1" thick. Resist the urge to use newspaper! It's not nearly as absorbent and the
slippery surface can lead to a permanent deformity called "splayed leg" which can ultimate result in the other
chickens picking on the affected bird to death. Many people also swear by paper towels, changed often, and we must admit that they're a nice option. (DON'T use cedar shavings,
no matter what friends or your local feed store tell you: the aromatic oils will irritate your chicks' lungs, and make them more
susceptible to respiratory problems later in life.)
We recommend you don't try to use a dish, a rabbit drinker, or anything you have just "laying around". Baby chicks have special needs
when it comes to water. Dishes can make it easy for chicks to drown, and they'll certainly do naughty things like walk in it, spill
it, kick their bedding materials into it, and poop in it -- meaning you'll have to change it constantly. For the best results, we recommend you use a specially-designed
chick waterer, like these. They come in a number of
different sizes and shapes, all sufficient to do the job.
Keep in mind that even with the best drinker, except for a nipple drinker, those rascally chicks will still kick bedding materials into it and find ways to poop in it from time to
time. Raising the waterer off the ground somewhat will help (starting their second week of life), but no matter what they're going to
get that water messy, so plan on changing it a few times a day.
Once again, we recommend you resist the temptation to use a dish or bowl for feeding your chicks. Chicks will jump
in and kick the feed all over the place, poop in it, and worse case scenario: they'll tip it over and trap a baby underneath.
(This has happened!) Spend those few extra dollars and buy a "real" baby chick feeder, or borrow one from a friend. They come in
many shapes and sizes, and we offer them all at very reasonable prices.
Bonus: Roosting Poles
Chickens love to roost on poles or branches when they're resting. You don't HAVE to provide your brood roosting poles,
but they'll be even happier if you do. We like half inch diameter wooden dowels. Try them about 5 inches off the ground. (They may
like it so much they won't roost on top of your feeder and waterer!)
Fortunately this one doesn't require much thought! Suppliers have formulated special feed complete with everything baby
chicks need. It's called "starter feed" and comes in either "crumbles" or "mash" (referring to how ground down it is).
Either is fine. The only thing to know is that if you've had your chicks vaccinated against Coccidiosis, they'll need an
un-medicated feed. If not, or if you've only had them vaccinated for Marek's Disease,
medicated feed is a great
way to keep them healthy those first few months. We also offer a terrific
organic chick starter feed.
A question we commonly get is how long to feed baby chicks "starter feed" for before switching to a feed called
"grower" or "chick grower". The answer is: it all depends! Each manufacturer formulates their feed differently, so
read the label and follow their instructions. Some only recommend the starter for 4 weeks before moving onto grower;
some combine both together in a "starter/grower" feed that can last up to 16 weeks, etc.
Customers also will ask us whether they can feed their chicks scraps, or worms and other bugs from the garden... Small
amounts of vegetable/dairy should be fine for the chicks (and they'll love it!), and the same goes with bugs and worms.
But consider those like dessert, not the main course. Starter feeds contain everything chicks need to survive and thrive,
and filling them up with too much of the "other stuff" can throw off their nutritional balance.
Finally, people want to know how much food they should give their birds. The answer is: as much as they want! Don't ration it.
Give your birds 24/7 access to all the food they can eat. They're not like dogs. They'll self-regulate.
Ever heard the saying "scarce as a hen's teeth"? That's right, chickens don't have them! Instead they eat tiny pebbles
and store them in their "crop". When the food enters their
crop, the pebbles grind it up to make digestion easier. For baby chicks, sand, parakeet gravel or canary gravel,
available at your local pet store or grocery store pet aisle, will suffice. You can either sprinkle this in their feed
or provide it in a small cup or bowl.
Netting for the top
Although most grown chickens are pretty pathetic flyers, young chicks are much more capable. If your brooder is only 12 inches high,
don't be surprised if you find your week-old chicks perching on top of it! To prevent this, we recommend you cut a section
of deer netting or chicken wire just big enough to drape over your brooder, or use a 2-foot-high brooder box to increase
the length of time before they're able to "fly the coop".
Bringing Your Baby Chicks Home
First things first: find out what day your chicks will be arriving at the post office. (Some places ship chicks to arrive
on Sunday, which isn't terribly convenient, but our chicks
ship out on Mondays or Tuesdays and are guaranteed by the post office to arrive by the end of the day Thursday.)
Let your postmaster know in advance that you'll need to pick them up as soon as they arrive. If your chicks are coming on
a Sunday, there's a good chance your postmaster will go to the office and open it just for you. Those baby chicks
need your TLC so the sooner you pick them up, the better! Postmasters understand this and are usually happy to help out. Also,
some post offices around the country (like Portland, Oregon, for one!) will deliver the chicks directly to your door. Ask this
question of your postmaster ahead of time.
When you get them home, be prepared: one or two may have died in shipping or may be on their "way out". This isn't due to
disease. Some chicks are born less hardy than others and can't withstand the stress and cold temperatures involved in
transporting them around the country. Most hatcheries, in fact, prepare for that by
including an extra bird or two for free. (Beware, though, as some hatcheries will throw in roosters even if you didn't order
them! We're proud to say that if we include extras, we'll only include a bird of the same breed and sex as one you've
ordered.) Care for the weak birds as best you can, and bury the dead birds as you would any other pet. Also, call
the hatchery right away to let them know if a bird dies. They'll usually either give you a partial refund or a discount
on your next order so long as you notify them within 24-48 hours of arrival. (Our policy is 48 hours.)
A note for parents ordering chicks
Since baby chicks do die from time to time in shipping, we recommend that if you've got young children you A) Do not tell
them when the chicks are coming, B) Do not tell them how many chicks you've ordered, and C) Do not have them with you when
you inspect the box for the first time. This way if there are any losses, you can deal with them without the kids ever being
the wiser. Losses are not common, but when they do happen they can be devastating to little ones.
Important health notes
As you move your baby chicks from their shipping box into their brooder kit (which you've set
up and heated in advance, of course!), check them for "pasting up", a condition in which their droppings cake up and block
their vent opening, preventing
them from passing any more droppings. This problem will be pretty obvious; you won't have to go
poking around their insides to see it. The dried poo will be stuck to their outside, totally or partially
covering their vent.
This is a deadly condition and must be dealt with immediately. To clear the blockage, use a warm, wet paper
towel to soften the poo blocking the vent. It should then be relatively easy to remove. To make sure your chick
doesn't get chilled during this process, you may want to do this near a heat source and make sure to keep the wet
paper towel warm. In bad cases where the water is just not penetrating the mass to soften it, you may have to dunk
the chick's rear in warm water before it will loosen up enough to remove it, and sometimes you will CAREFULLY have
to use tweezers. Your chick will complain, loudly, but stand fast in your determination knowing that the chick will die
if you don't! Once you've succeeded, dry the chick off with a blow dryer and immediately return her to the brooder kit
with the others. Be sure to wash and sanitize your hands thoroughly when you're done; you've just been handling poo,
after all! And keep checking the birds that presented with this problem, for it often returns throughout the first week.
Immediate access to water
Your new brood will need water right away. Watch them carefully once you've transferred them to their new home. If they
aren't finding the water, pick an especially spritely one and gently put its beak into the water. This should be enough
to teach them - once one chick's drinking the others are sure to follow! The same goes with the food: make sure they're
finding it. If not, show them. Resist the temptation to feed your chicks water with a syringe.
This can cause death by drowning, even if you're very careful about it. Just gently dip their beaks in water. If one is
still not drinking, chances are it is struggling to stay alive and may not make it.
The Umbilical Cord
Some baby chicks will arrive to you with an intact, attached umbilical cord. It looks like a very thin black string,
attached to their rear. For heaven's sake, don't pull it! It's not "pasting up"! Just leave it alone. It will fall off within
a day or two. Pulling it can really injure them.
Ongoing Chick Care
Keep checking up on your chicks several times a day. They'll be doing naughty things like kicking up their bedding into
the feed and water, and you'll have to clean up after them. (Don't forget, they need round-the-clock access to all
the food and water they can get their beaks on!)
Also pay close attention to their behavior. We said it before and we'll say it again because it's key: If they're crowded
together directly under the heat source, they're cold. Lower the heat lamp or add another one. If they're around the edges
of the brooder avoiding the heat and each other like the plague, they're too hot! Raise the heat lamp. Not getting this right
can be the death of young chicks.
For sanitary purposes and to keep their area from stinking, change their bedding at least once a week. We throw ours
in the compost pile where it's happily turned into rich earth.
Heating over time
Don't forget that your baby chicks need less and less heat as time goes by. By their 2nd week the heat can be reduced 5 degrees
to 90, by the 3rd week by another 5 degrees to 85 and so on. However, this is just a guideline. Continue tuning into their
behavioral cues as described above and you'll know how to tweak their heat. Also, keep in mind that some of your chicks will
develop faster than others, requiring less heat, while the "runty" ones will want to be closer to the heat lamp. Make sure your
heating set-up gives each chick the choice of how much heat is comfortable to them (in other words, don't create a uniform
temperature by putting the heat lamp inside the box and then covering the box!)
Dealing with kids & chicks
If you've got kids or you're planning on bringing kids over to see the chicks, set the boundaries up front. Chicks are
irresistibly sweet and cheeky kids tend to harass them. Make sure you watch the chicks; if they show signs of distress, be firm and
return them to their brooder. Also, if you have chicks are or were recently pasted up, please instruct your kids
to let them be. Over-handling can prevent a chick that's "on the edge" from bouncing back (it can be the death of them!).
Growing... and growing!
As your chicks get older you'll understand why we recommended a minimum of 2 square feet of living space per bird. If you
provided them less than that and your older chicks are picking at one another, do expand their living quarters.
Both you and the chicks will be much less stressed. And as mentioned above, if they start flying on top of their brooder box,
a simple length of deer netting or chicken wire laid on top of their living quarters should prevent it!
After the chicks are 2-3 weeks old, if it's warm outside (65-70 degrees at least) and sunny, feel free to let them
have a little "outdoor time"! Put them in a wire cage or erect some other temporary housing and place it in the sun,
making sure they have access to water and shade if they need it. They'll absolutely love digging around in the grass. But don't
leave them unattended! At this age they're VERY good at flying and VERY susceptible to predators. Plus, if it's windy they'll
get cold (and they'll let you know they're unhappy with their loud chirping).
By 4-5 weeks of age your chickens are ready to move outside full-time. And thank goodness! As much as you love them, you'll be
thrilled to get them out of your house. Read the next chapters to learn about chicken coop requirements, how to transition them
to their coop and how to care for them as they get older. Also, keep in mind that if you're purchasing a chicken coop it can take
three or more weeks to arrive, so you may want to have that squared away before you get the chicks!
Baby Chick FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
Q: Can I combine different breeds in a flock, or will they not get along?
A: Go ahead and combine! No matter what combo of birds you get -- whether it's 25 of the same breed or one each of
five different breeds -- one bird will be at the top of the pecking order and one will be at the bottom. This is true whether
you get aggressive birds (like Old English Games) or really docile birds (like Silkies). You'll have a "head honcho" that
"rules the roost" and a "wallflower" that stays out of the fray for fear she'll get picked on by the others. Also, even if you
order purely docile breeds, you could have one with a wacky personality that picks on all the others, or vice versa a
reputedly "flighty" breed could end up being your biggest sweetheart! In other words, each bird has their own, unique
personality. So don't worry too much about managing your flock. Just go with what you like!
Q: Can I combine bantams and large fowl (standard) birds together?
A: See above. Same goes here!
Q: How much food should I give my baby chicks?
A: As much as they want! We talked about this a little above, but in case you didn't catch it, chickens aren't like dogs -- they won't
eat themselves to death. They'll only eat as much as they need. So go on, spoil them! Give them as much food as you can fit in your
feeder. They won't overdo it.
Q: Is "pasting up" REALLY a deadly condition?
A: You bet it is! "Pasting up" is described above: it's when droppings cake up and block a baby chick's vent opening, preventing
them from passing any more droppings, and it must be dealt with imediately. Apply a warm, wet paper towel to their rears and then
use a toothpick to gently clear the blockage, or in severe cases dunk the chick's rear in warm water so it softens up enough
to remove it. Dry her off and return her to the brooder kit with the other chicks, and keep an eye on her in the coming days to make
sure the problem doesn't return.