What's the right ratio of males to females for ducks and geese?

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Duck male-to-female ratios

In flocks, the general recommendation is one drake for every 4-6 ducks. During breeding season, that may be reduced (for the sake of getting a better fertility percentage) to a pair: 1 drake with 1 duck, or a trio: 1 drake with 2 ducks, or a pen: 1 drake for 3-5 ducks. As you can see, smaller ratios are fine for the breeding season only. If you plan to keep them together all the time, 1 drake for every 4-6 ducks is recommended. If you have too many males, they will become very aggressive sexually and may harm some of the weaker females. Make sure you have plenty of space and places your females can go to take a break from amorous males.

Two or more drakes usually get along fine together as long as there are no females present. However, if you introduce females, the competition will begin!

Goose male-to-female ratios

In small flocks, geese can usually be kept as pairs (1 gander with 1 goose). In a larger operation, however, you would generally want one gander for every 2.5 to 3.5 females. The number of geese a gander can service during breeding season will depend on the breed:

Goose Breed Recommended Male:Female Ratio for Breeding
African 1:2-6
Embden 1:3-4
Toulouse (non-dewlap) 1:3-4
Toulouse (large dewlap) 1:2-3
American Buff 1:3-5
Pilgrim 1:3-5
Pomeranian 1:3-4
Sebastopol 1:1-4
Chinese 1:2-4
Roman Tufted 1:2-4
Canadian 1:1 (semidomestic - 1:2-3)
Egyptian 1:1

*Information in table adapted from David Holderread's The Book of Geese